Lorrie Faith Cranor
the polls we found on the World Wide Web in November 1995 were
VOTELINK, a Web site that features weekly votes on a variety of
local, national, and international issues
CyberPoll, a Web site that polls visitors on their preferred
Presidential candidate (http://www.rtis.com/nat/pol/cyberpoll/);
Interactive@ValueLine, a Web site that polls visitors on their
preferred Presidential candidate, predictions about the OJ trial,
and other topics (http://www.dfw.net/1#1alans/inter/); and
Geertt's Pollpage, a Web page that asks visitors to name their
favorite actress, handsomest man, and other celebrity preferences
(http://www.stack.urc.tue.nl/2#2geertt/). None of these sites claimed
to offer any privacy protection. Two of them claimed that they
would only count one vote from each voter.
- In the Sensus
system, there is no difference between an election and a survey.
Therefore, throughout this paper the terms poll,
election, and survey will be used interchangeably.
Likewise, the term ballot will refer to both survey forms and
ballots and the term voter will refer to both voters and
- Slessenger  reports that voter privacy is
not a requirement in the United Kingdom, where voter identification
numbers and ballot numbers are recorded together.
and Tuinstra  explain:
There are reports that in some small Italian villages, the
voting system employed allows voters to list their votes in any
order. Political bosses are said to assign different
permutations of their preferred candidates to each voter. If a
particular permutation fails to appear when the votes are
counted, a boss can assume that the voter to which that
permutation was assigned did not vote ``properly'', and
reprisals can be taken.
- The Sensus polling protocol uses blind
signatures to preserve privacy and democracy simultaneously.
First introduced by Chaum , blind signatures allow a
document to be signed without revealing its contents. The effect is
similar to placing a document and a sheet of carbon paper inside an
envelope. If somebody signs the outside of the envelope, they also
sign the document on the inside of the envelope. The signature
remains attached to the document, even when it is removed from the
- We have implemented a prototype ballot
authoring tool called Ballot Palette. This module was implemented
using C and the XView tool kit. It provides a graphical
representation of a ballot and allows users to edit ballots by
dragging icons with a mouse. Ballot Palette then produces BLT code
for the created ballot.
Sun Nov 5 20:54:12 CST 1995